Бөтә яңылыҡтар

Bashkortostan – my native land

(Башкортостан – моя родина)

Цель урока. Ознакомление студентов со страноведческим материалом по теме «Башкортостан», с географическим положением, городами, символами, населением, традициями.
Ход урока
Фонетическая разминка.
BASHKORTOSTAN –
MY NATIVE LAND
Bashkortostan – my native land,
You always give your helping hand,
Your heart is open for all of us,
For our generous and kind friends.
You give us food
And happy childhood.
You give us your love,
The sky is blue above.
Bashkortostan, my land, my sky,
Your mountains are very high.
Bashkortostan, you are rich and dear,
We are free and happy here.
B1. Good morning, dear children and guests! We are glad to see you again in our school. Today we are going to invite you to an interesting journey, which is called “Welcome to Bashkortostan!”.
B2. Every year a lot of people visit Bashkortostan. Our republic is fantastic! Dear boys and girls, let us imagine that our guests are from different foreign countries and let’s try to persuade them to visit our native land – Bashkortostan.
B1. There are many different reasons for travelling to Bashkortostan. Will you name some of them?
Why travel to Bashkortostan?
to learn about the history of Bashkortostan
to see the beautiful countryside
to take part in a celebration
to visit places of interest
to meet people
to buy souvenirs
B2. So, travelling is a very useful thing, when you travel you learn a lot of interesting information about the country you are going to. Would you like to start our journey? Off we go then!
B1. Welcome to Bashkortostan, one of the republics in Russia. It has its own national symbols and emblems. It is a republic of very old traditions.
S1. Ер шарының картаһына
Ҡараһаң яҡшы ғына, –
Башҡортостан шул картала
Бер япраҡ саҡлы ғына.
Эйе, япраҡ, аҡ ҡайындың
Бер япрағы ни бары.
Ә ҡайыны – бөйөк Рәсәй,
Шундай йәшел, юғары.
S2. Look at the globe,
Here it is, the Earth,
And on it, Bashkiria,
No bigger than a leaf,
One leaf on a tree.
And the birch, the great Russia,
Stands so green and tall.
Выступления студентов.
Historical facts
S3. Bashkortostan, located in the mountains and plains of the southern Urals, has a territory of 143,000 square kilometers and a population of over 5mln people. Bashkortostan is an independent state within the Russian Federation. The independent Republic of Bashkortostan was created on the 11th of October in 1990. The head of the State in the Republic is the president Rustem Khamitov. There are citizens of more than 100 different nationalities living in Bashkortostan. They include Bashkirs, Russians, Tatars, Chuvashes, Maris, Ukranians and Germans. The original people of the territory, however, are the Bashkirs, they were a wandering community, who moved from place to place and had no permanent home. They were united by their language and their way of life and lived as a large tribe under the leadership of one chief. In 1557 the Bashkirs agreed to be the part of the Russian State.
1. The Republic of Bashkortostan is in the South Ural mountains and has an area of 143,600 km2. There are 21 cities in Bashkortostan. The capital city is Ufa. Other large cities in the republic include Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk and Oktyabrsky.
2. The population of Bashkortostan is just over 4 million. One third of people living in Bashkortostan are Bashkirs Russians, Chuvash, Tatars, Udmurts, Mari and others also live in the republic.
3. Russian is the official language of Bashkortostan. The Bashkir language is the second language in the Republic.
4. Bashkortostan is one of the largest agricultural regions in Russia. It also has many growing industries. The area produces a lot of oil, gas, copper and iron. Bashkortostan has beautiful-scenery. There are over eight hundred lakes and six hundred rivers. The wildlife in this area includes bears, moose, foxes, hares and over two hundred species of birds.
S4.The National Flag of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a symbol of its sovereignty, reflects its aspiration to be a democratic law-based state, readiness for political, socio-economic cooperation with all republics and states and, first of all, with the Russian Federation. The National Flag is a rectangular tricolor cloth with an emblem consisting of green, white and blue stripes of the same width on its right reverse sides.
In the center of the white stripe there is an emblem of golden colour – a circle, in the center of which there is a stylized kurai flower consisting of 7 petals. The blue colour in the National Flag of the Republic of Bashkortostan stands for clarity, virtue, purity of the intentions of the republic’s peoples; the white one – for the peaceful disposition, openness, readiness for mutual cooperation; the green one – for freedom, the eternity of life. The kurai flower is the symbol of friendship, its 7 petals, placed in the center of the white stripe, symbolize 7 kins who stated the consolidation and unification of the peoples of Bashkortostan on its territory.
S5. The National Emblem of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a symbol of the state sovereignty of the Republic of Bashkortostan, reflects the aspiration of its people for freedom, their courage, nobility and fidelity to their duty. The National Emblem of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a picture of the monument to Salavat Yulayev against the background of the rising sun and its rays put in a circle framed with a national ornament. Below, there is a kurai floscule, a ribbon of the colours of the National Flag of the Republic of Bashkortostan with the inscription “Bashkortostan” on a white ground.
Famous people
S6. Every country has its outstanding people who have contributed immensely to the prosperity of their native land. Among them are well-known statesmen, public figures, writers, poets, painters, military leaders, actors, etc. In each country there are outstanding people who are well-known not only in their own country, but all over the world too. Mustai Karim is one of the most well-known persons in Bashkortostan, an outstanding modern Bashkir poet, publicist and public figure. Mustai Karim has got a lot of awards and medals. He took part in the Great Patriotic War and the tragedy of war is reflected in his collections of poems “My Horse”, “December Song” and many others. His books are translated into many languages. Mustai Karim once compared the republic to a leaf on a birch tree which he called “Russia”. Alien winds and fires have tried to tear it from the tree more than once.
S7. Shaikhzada Babich lived a very short life – 24 years. His creative activity lasted 10 years. His works were published in the course of 4 – 5 years. But they are considered an outstanding phenomenon in the history of Bashkir literature. His poems, ballads, epigrams, topical satires and shows were an event in the spiritual life of the Bashkir people. Everything he wrote reflected contemporary life.
Akmulla is a nickname of a classic of Bashkir poetry, a national sessen whose real name is Miftakhetdin Kamaletdinov. This assumed name means “honest, bright teacher”. He was born in 1831 in the south of Bashkiria. He studied in several mdressehs and travelled a lot in the southern Ural regions and Kazakh steppes. Akmulla appealed to people to study, gain knowledge and progress. Akmulla lived a very hard life. He died in 1895. Bashkir people are proud of Akmulla’s poetry. In 1981, an Akmulla museum was opened in his native village.
Beautiful countryside
S8. Our Republic is the jewel of the Urals. Here, side by side with the mountain ridges are beautiful lowlands stretching far and wide. Large steppes and thick wild forests with majestic honey-bearing lime-trees. The charm of the landscape is accented by numerous rivers and lakes, so plentiful in this region.
The Republic of Bashkortostan is located in the Southern part of the Ural Mountains and on the plains of either side of the Urals ridge. The area of Bashkortostan is 144,000 square kilometers. The population is over 5 mln people.
Places of interest
S9. Ufa, the capital of Bashkortostan, is the political, industrial, scientific and cultural center of Bashkortostan. The city is on the banks of the river Aghidel, at the point where it meets the rivers of Ufa and Dyoma. From north-east to south-west, the city stretches along the banks of the river Aghidel and the river Ufa. All over city of Ufa, there are many statues, created to honour the important events and people throughout its history. For example, there are monuments to the well-known figures of the October Revolution, the Civil War, and those who were part of the history of friendship between Bashkortostan and Russia.
When you arrive in Ufa by train or boat, the first thing you see is the monument to the national hero, Salavat Yulayev, which is on the right bank of the river Aghidel. It was erected in 1967 to honour him, and is very beautiful statue. People come to this area of the city every day, relax and enjoy the views of forests, lakes and fields on the other side of the river.
Celebrations
S10. Every country has its own traditions and they make a nation special. Many foreigners come to Bashkortostan to learn about our traditions and to take part in a celebration. There are some special dates and events in the life of our republic. One of the most popular is the Sabantui. ‘Saban’ is the Bashkir word for plough, and ‘tui’ means festival; so Sabantui means ‘Festival of the Plough’. Sabantui is celebrated in villages and regions at the end of the planting season. Many thousands attend the festival. People get together early in the morning on the steppes. Speeches are made in honour of achievements and to express hope for the future. Then there are various sports contests, the most important of which is bare-back horse-racing for which the biggest prizes are awarded. The festival goes on late into the night with singing and dancing.
Souvenirs
S11. The whole world is an object of art. Geographical and historical peculiarities, economy, everyday life are reflected in the rich and many-sided Bashkir decorative and applied arts. Here belong wood carving and wood painting, leather stamping, jeweller’s art, embroidery and applique, carpet-making, art weaving, making decorations of corals, glass beads and coins, knitting. The items made of rare wood species reveal the beauty of the natural material. Elegant and festive are the paintings on wooden bowls for serving koumiss, bish-barmak, kulama, desserts and drinks. Lackered miniatures - panels, vases, caskets, powder cases-capture the scenes from Bashkir epic and glimpses of country life. Successful colours of Bashkir nature are recreated in the patterns of carpets, of motley door-curtains, towels and bed covers.
Ladies’ jewelery – brooches, ear-rings, bracelets and pendants – go well with bright clothes fabricated in the batik technique.
National Cuisine
S12. Bashkir national cookery – bishbarmak, salma, tukmas, kullama and others. Kazy – home-made horse flesh sausage. Tukmas with beef home-made noodle soup.
Kurai is the name of a plant which became part of the official symbols of Bashkortostan. The state coat of arms and flag accepted in 1993. Besides the ‘plant’ the word ‘kurai’ denotes the national musical instrument of a flute type.
B1, B2. We live in one of the most beautiful republics in our country – in Bashkortostan.
B1. I am proud of my republic because more than 100 nationalities live together in a friendly multicultural family. We are happy because our Republic is rich, beneficial and free and we have all opportunities to work and study, to live and rest, to create and enjoy ourselves.
B1&B2. Let our Republic be in blossom! Welcome to Bashkortostan!
Опрос на тему “Do you know about our republic Bashkortostan?”.
T. Let’s check up how much do you know about our republic. Answer my questions.
1. Where is Bashkortostan located? (The South Urals.)
2. What is the territory of Bashkortostan? (143,600 km2.)
3. What is the population of Bashkort­ostan? (Over 4 million.)
4. What are the main rivers and lakes? (Belaya River, Ufa River, Sim, Nugush, Ik, Dyoma, Zilim, Ay, Kandry-kul, Asly-kul.)
5. What is the biggest river in Bashkortostan? (Belaya River – 1,430 km.)
6. What nationalities are in Bash­kor­tostan? (Bashkirs, Russian, Chuvash, Tatars, Udmurts, Mari and others.)
7. What famous writers do you know? (Salavat Yulaev, Mustai Karim, Zarema Akhmedyanova, Ibragim Abdullin, Nail Gaitbaev, Musa Gali, Gulnur Yakupova, Dinis Bulyakov, Robert Pal.)
8. What regions does Bashkortostan border on? (Chelyabinsk, Perm, Tatar, Sverdlov, Orenburg, Udmurt regions.)
You knowledge is brilliant. Thank you. You know a lot about our republic.
Say “True” or “False”.
1. We have a lot of talented writer, poets, actors and actresses.
2. The first president of our Republic is Boris Yeltsin.
3. Each town has its president.
4. The capital of Bashkortostan is Ster­litamak.
5. The Republic is rich in oils, chemical industry and agriculture.
6. Bashkortostan‘s is the national flag, isn’t it?
7. The flag has thirteen stripes on it.
8. The stripes are blue, white and green.
4. Проверка усвоенного материала.
You have learned a lot about our republic. There are tests in front of you. Choose the right answers and mark them.
Test.
1. What is the official name of our republic?
а) The Bashkort Autonomous Republic;
б) the Republic of Bashkortostan;
в) the Bashkort Republic.
2. What is the capital of the republic?
а) Ufa; б) Sibay; в) Salavat.
3. What is the political system of the republic?
а) A limited monarchy; б) a parliamentary monarchy; в) a parliamentary republic.
4. How many districts are there in the republic?
а) 50; б) 52; в) 54.
5. How many stripes are there on the flag of Bashkortostan?
а) 2; б) 3; в) 4.
6. What is the name of the legislative power?
а) The Senate; б) the Kurultai;
в) the Cabinet of Ministers.
7. Who is the first president of Bashkortostan?
а) Rakhimov; б) Putin; в) Yeltsin.
8. What is the highest point of the Urals?
а) Iremel; б) Yangantau; в) Yamantau.
9. What is the main river of Bashkor­tostan?
а) The Agithel; б) the Yuruzan; в) the Karaithel.
10. What is the largest lake in Bashkortostan?
а) The Aslykul; б) the Kandrakul; в) the Talkath.
Подведение итогов, выставление оценок, домашнее задание.

М.Ф. ИШМУХАМЕТОВА,
преподаватель Уфимского лесотехнического техникума